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Who wrote the Quran?

Quran has no author, and no group or individual in Arabia ever claimed to have written it. The Qur’an, revered as the Word of Allah by Muslims the world over, is the same Quran as the one revealed to Prophet Muhammad. Prophet Muhammad himself supervised and authenticated the written texts of the Quran. Quran didn’t come in a day but in a span of 23 years. The Quran is a highly comprehensive book containing Divine truths, metaphysics, religious beliefs and worship, prayer, law, and morality. Allah says:

نَّحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يَسْتَمِعُونَ بِهِ إِذْ يَسْتَمِعُونَ إِلَيْكَ وَإِذْ هُمْ نَجْوَىٰ إِذْ يَقُولُ الظَّالِمُونَ إِن تَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا رَجُلًا مَّسْحُورًا

“We know best [of] what they listen to [it] when they listen to you, and when they (are) in private conversation, when say the wrongdoers, “Not you follow but a man bewitched.” (Surah 17 Al-Isra, Ayat 47)

Simply, God is aware of what is in the heavens and the earth, He knows the past and the present, and reveals the truth to His prophet. The Quran has scientific descriptions only recently discovered by modern science and that could not have been known 1400 years ago. Allah says:

وَقَالُوا أَسَاطِيرُ الْأَوَّلِينَ اكْتَتَبَهَا فَهِيَ تُمْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلًا

And they say, “Tales (of) the former people which he has had written and they are dictated to him morning and evening.” (Surah Al-Furqan 25:5)

It is a book fully describing the other life, a book of psychology, sociology, epistemology, and history, and a book containing scientific facts and the principles of a utopian life. A testament to the Divine Authenticity of the Quran is that such a comprehensive book, one that was revealed over a period of 23 years, does not have any contradictory points. Allah says:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ لِمَ تُحَرِّمُ مَا أَحَلَّ اللَّهُ لَكَ تَبْتَغِي مَرْضَاتَ أَزْوَاجِكَ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

“O Prophet! Why (do) you prohibit what Allah has made lawful for you, seeking (to) please your wives? And Allah (is) Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (Surah At-Tahrim 66:1)

The Quran describes geographical concepts that were proven after its revelation. For example, it was the common dogma 1400 years ago that the earth was flat, but the Quran described it as a sphere, compressed at each end (like an ostrich egg):

Allah Almighty says in the Holy Quran:

  • “And the earth moreover, He has made egg-shaped. (Quran 79:30)
  • “Those who believed and find satisfaction their hearts in the remembrance (of) Allah. No doubt, in the remembrance of Allah find satisfaction the hearts.” (Ar-Rad 13:28)
  • “And not any moving creature in the earth but on Allah (is) its provision. And He knows its dwelling place and its place of storage. All (is) in a Record clear.” (Hud 11:6)
  • “But as for he who came to you striving [for knowledge] while he fears [God], from him you are distracted. No! Indeed, they [these verses] are a reminder.” (Quran 80:8-11)
  • “…while you concealed within yourself that which God is to disclose and you feared the people, while God has more right that you fear Him..” (Quran 33:43)
  • “And not is this the Quran, that (it could be) produced by other than Allah, but (it is) a confirmation (of that) which (was) before it and a detailed explanation (of) the Book, (there is) no doubt in it, from (the) Lord (of) the worlds.” (Yunus 10:37)
  • “Do not they see that they are tried [in] every year once or twice? Yet not they turn (in repentance), and not they pay to heed.” (Taubah 9:126)
  • “And he [Muhammad] is not a withholder of [knowledge of] the unseen. And it [the Quran] is not the word of a devil, expelled [from the heavens]. So where are you going? It is nothing but a reminder to the world.” (Quran 81:24-27)
  • “Verily, it is We Who have sent down the Quran and surely, We will guard it (from corruption).” (Quran 15:9)
  • “(There is) no compulsion in the religion. Surely has become distinct the right (path) from the wrong. Then whoever disbelieves in false deities and believes in Allah, then surely he grasped the handhold – [the] firm, (which) not (will) break [for it]. And Allah (is) All-Hearing, All-Knowing.” (Baqarah 2:256)
  • “(The) Day We will fold the heaven like (the) folding (of) a scroll for records. We began (the) first creation We will repeat it, a promise upon Us. Indeed, We – We are (the) Doers.” (Anbiya` 21:104)

The life and character of the Prophet (PBUH), the depth of the Quranic message, and its appeal and relevance to both the spiritual and the mundane, all testify to the Divine origin of the Quran. These points compel us to admit our inability to provide an explanation that relies solely upon material causes. In a world starved of love and compassion, the Quran’s universal message is the perfect antidote to the collective despair of the human condition. Allah says:

فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ يَكْتُبُونَ الْكِتَابَ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ يَقُولُونَ هَٰذَا مِنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ لِيَشْتَرُوا بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا فَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم مِّمَّا كَتَبَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم مِّمَّا يَكْسِبُونَ

“So woe to those who write the book with their (own) hands then, they say, “This (is) from Allah,” to barter with it (for) a price little. So woe to them for what has written their hands and woe to them for what they earn.” (Surah Al-Baqarah 2:79)

The Qur’an was revealed in stages over a period of 23 years, and not as a complete book in one single act of revelation. There are a number of reasons for this; the most important are the following: To strengthen the heart of the Prophet (saws) by addressing him continuously and whenever the need for guidance arose. Out of consideration for the Prophet since revelation was a very difficult experience for him. Allah says:

وَلَقَدْ كَتَبْنَا فِي الزَّبُورِ مِن بَعْدِ الذِّكْرِ أَنَّ الْأَرْضَ يَرِثُهَا عِبَادِيَ الصَّالِحُونَ

“And verily, We have written in the Scripture after the mention, that the earth – will inherit it My slaves, the righteous.” (Surah Al-Anbiya 21:105)

To gradually implement the laws of God. To make understanding, application, and memorization of the revelation easier for the believers. The Quran could be defined as Allah’s words which were revealed in Arabic in a rhythmical form to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Its recitation is used in acts of worship and its smallest chapter (Surah) is of a miraculous nature. God assures us in the Quran that He will surely protect His words. Allah says:

وَكَتَبْنَا لَهُ فِي الْأَلْوَاحِ مِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ مَّوْعِظَةً وَتَفْصِيلًا لِّكُلِّ شَيْءٍ فَخُذْهَا بِقُوَّةٍ وَأْمُرْ قَوْمَكَ يَأْخُذُوا بِأَحْسَنِهَا سَأُرِيكُمْ دَارَ الْفَاسِقِينَ

And We ordained (laws) for him in the tablets – of everything, instruction and explanation for everything, “So take them with firmness and order your people (to) take (the) best of it. I will show you (the) home (of) the defiantly disobedient.” (Surah Al-Araf 7:145)

This means that God will guard against anything false being added or any part of it being taken away. It is protected from tampering and if anyone attempts to distort the meanings of the Quran, God will guide someone to expose the deception. Muslims believe that the previous revelations from God

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