Monthly calendars play a vital role in the scheduling of time and important events in the lives of their respective followers. There are many kinds of almanacks made from people of different religions and regions for sake of knowing about specific traditions, occasions and holidays etc. like Gregorian (Christian), Chinese and Hijri (Islamic) calendars. All of such charts are based on the shifting of the Moon and contains approximately 30 days in each month because of the Moon`s shape and movements. Islam also shares the same concept of timetable as the Almighty Lord says in the Holy Quran: Allah says:
هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ ضِيَاءً وَالْقَمَرَ نُورًا وَقَدَّرَهُ مَنَازِلَ لِتَعْلَمُوا عَدَدَ السِّنِينَ وَالْحِسَابَ مَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ ذَٰلِكَ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ يُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ
“It is He who made the sun a shining light and the moon a derived light and determined for it phases – that you may know the number of years and account [of time]. Allah has not created this except in truth. He details the signs for a people who know.” (Surah Yunus 10:5)
It was agreed that the most appropriate reference point for the Islamic calendar was the Hijrah since it was an important turning point for the Muslim community. Islamic calendars are based on the shifting of the moon and contain approximately 30 days each month because of the moon’s shape and movements. Allah Almighty says in the Holy Quran. Allah says:
إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَظْلِمُ النَّاسَ شَيْئًا وَلَٰكِنَّ النَّاسَ أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ
“Indeed, Allah (does) not wrong the people (in) anything, but the people wrong themselves.” (Surah Yunus 10:44)
Every month in Hijri Calendar there’re many of history or even of Islamic moments, commands of good deeds and bad deeds also listed here. Therefore below these’re the information about the twelve months of the Hijri Calendar and the importance of Islamic month (each month).
12th Hijri month Considered to Islamic Calendar:
- Rabi’ I
- Rabi’ II
- Jumada I
- Jumada II
Below we will discuss the information regarding twelve months of the Islamic Hijri calendar with the importance of each Islamic month.
- Muharram: Muharram is the first month in the Islamic calendar, means of Muharram is “Forbidden”. Muharram is the sacred month that is also mentioned by Allah Almighty in the Quran. Allah says in the Quran: “Four of them (Zul-Qadah, Zul-Hijjah, Muharram, and Rajab) are sacred.” (Quran, 9: 36). In the holy month of Muharram, our Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) used to fast: “The beast of fast besides the month of Ramadan is the fasting of Allah’s month of ” (Muslim)
- Safar: Safar is the second Islamic month which comes after Muharram. Some people in the pre-Islamic period believe that Safar is not an unlucky month, there would bring mishaps and other disasters. Holy Prophet (SAW) said about this fallacy in one of his hadith narrated by Hazrat Jabir (RA): “I have heard the Prophet saying; the descending of illness and evil superstition befalling in the month of Safar is untrue” (Muslim). Some events took place in the month of Safar were the battle of Abwaa took place on 12th of Safar in the year 2 A.H, the battle of Khaibar took place in the year 7 A.H and Hazrat Ali (RA) got married to Hazrat Fatima (RA) the daughter of Prophet Muhammad (SAW).
- Rabi ul Awwal: Rabi ul Awwal is the first month of spring and third month in the Islamic calendar. Our beloved Prophet Muhammad (SAW) was born in this holy month. Other than that Holy Prophet (SAW) migrated from Makah to Medina in this Islamic month. Two battles were held in this month, the battle of Kuwait and Safvan took place in the year 2 A.H.
- Rabi al-Thani: Rabi al-Thani is the fourth holy Islamic month in the Islamic calendar; there are two important events that Muslims should know which took place in this holy month. First, the battle of Furu’ from Burhan took place in 3 A.H. Second, two important pious persons Hazrat Khwaja Nizamuddin and Hazrat Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani passed away at the age of 90.
- Jamada Awwal: Jamada means dry and this is the first time of summer in the Islamic calendar. Jamada Awwal is the fifth Islamic month in the Islamic calendar. In this month, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) married His first Wife, Hazrat Khadija (RA. The Grandfather Hazrat Abdul Muttalib of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) also died at this time of the year. Jamada Awwal is recognized by the battle of Mut’ah which is become the greatest Muslim battle in that era.
- Jamada al-Thani: Jamada al-Thani is the sixth month of the Islamic calendar. In this month Muslims first caliph Hazrat Abu Bakar (RA) passed away in 22nd Jamada al-Thani 13 H. At the same time, Hazrat Umar bin Khattab (RA) was appointed as the second caliph of Muslims. A big war in Islamic history called the Yarmuk battle was also held in this holy Islamic month.
- Rajab: Rajab is the seventh and one of the most sacred months of the Islamic calendar that Allah Almighty mentioned in the Holy Quran. Rajab is the great month of Allah Almighty and seeking forgiveness in this month is highly recommended. Other than that fasting in the month of Rajab can give you a greater reward. One of the most important events in the life of our beloved Prophet Muhammad (SAW) took place in this sacred month which is the journey of Miraj.
- Shaban: The word Shaban means “branch”, the month of Shaban branches off and leads to other good things. Shaban also acts as a connection between the two blessed and sacred months of Rajab and Ramadan. It is the eighth and one of the most revered months for all Muslims and Muslims all over the world to give value and have a special affiliation with it. Fasting in the month of Shaban also gives benefits to all Muslims; it gives a chance to start preparing for the month of Ramadan. In the holy month of Shaban, the night of forgiveness also comes on the 15th of Shaban.
- Ramadan: Ramadan is the 9th and most precious month in the Islamic calendar. Many miracles happened in this month, first of all, the Holy Quran was revealed on the 27th night of Ramadan. Second, obligatory fasting whole in Ramadan that is the fourth Pillar of Islam; the gates of Heaven were opened and gates of Hell was closed. Then, the night of power (Laylat al- Qadr) which is better than a thousand months also comes in this Holy month. The victory of Makah also took place on the 18th of Ramadan in the year 8 A.H.
- Shawwal: Shawwal is the tenth month of the Islamic calendar. The first day of Shawwal is Eid-ul-Fitr, which is the day of the festival when all sins are forgiven as a reward for fasting and prayers in the month of Ramadan. Our Prophet (SAW) has directed us to do non-obligatory six fastings of Shawwal. Holy Prophet (SAW) said in one of His hadith: “If one throughout his life keeps the fasts of Ramadan and keeps six consecutive fasts in Shawwal it will be as though he has kept a whole lifetime of fasts, and if one fast for six consecutive days in Shawwal it will be as though he has fasted all year round.” (Muslim)
- Zul – Qaddah: Zul Qaddah is the third month of the sacred month in which fighting is forbidden and Allah Almighty is mentioned in the Holy Quran. People used to start preparing for the great worship of Almighty Allah that is Hajj.
- Zul – Hijjah: It is the 12th and last sacred month that Allah Almighty mentioned in the Noble Quran. It is known as the month of Hajj which is the fifth pillar of Islam. The first ten days of Zul-Hijjah are the most virtuous in this holy month; Hajj is performed amongst these ten days. Hajj is obligatory for every financially and physically stable Muslim. In the holy month of Zul-Hijjah, our beloved Prophet Muhammad (SAW) performed His farewell Hajj and also gave the historic sermon which is known as the “Farewell Sermon”. Allah says:
إِنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهُورِ عِندَ اللَّهِ اثْنَا عَشَرَ شَهْرًا فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ مِنْهَا أَرْبَعَةٌ حُرُمٌ ذَٰلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ فَلَا تَظْلِمُوا فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ وَقَاتِلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ كَافَّةً كَمَا يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ كَافَّةً وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ
“The number of months with Allah Almighty is twelve by Allah’s law since the day He created the heavens and the earth. Of these four are holy. This is a straight reckoning. So do not exceed yourselves during them, but fight the idolaters to the end as they fight you in like manner, and remember Allah is with those who preserve themselves from evil and do the right.” (Surah At-Taubah 9:36)
The above-mentioned information related to the months of the Islamic calendar reminds us to increase our good deeds as Muslims. May Almighty Allah shower His blessings and mercy on all Muslims of the world! Ameen