The essential teachings of Islam are based on five principles, referred to as the 5 Pillars of Islam and six fundamental beliefs, known as the 6 pillars of Faith. The 5 pillars of Islam relate to actions and the 6 pillars of faith relate to faith/belief. Imaan (faith) is a crucial part of a Muslim’s life, and there are six articles of faith. These are derived from the Holy Quran and Sunnah of the prophet Muhammad. Allah says:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا آمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ مِن قَبْلُ وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا
“O you who believe[d]! Believe in Allah and His Messenger, and the Book which He revealed upon His Messenger and the Book which He revealed before. And whoever disbelieves in Allah and His Angels, and His Books, and His Messengers and the Day the Last, then surely he (has) lost (the) way, straying far away.” (Surah an-Nisa 4:136)
Moslem should know and memorize the six pillars of faith in Islam moreover to those who are new ones. Because it is very essential after the five pillars of Islam. While pillars of Islam teach us about the religious action should Moslems perform, in the six pillars of faith (Iman) teach us to believe everything that was taught in Islam by our Messenger? As in the five pillars of Islam, the faith must place in order. Allah says:
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ هَلْ مِنْ خَالِقٍ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ يَرْزُقُكُم مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ فَأَنَّىٰ تُؤْفَكُونَ
“O mankind! Remember (the) Favor (of), Allah, upon you. Is (there) any creator other (than) Allah who provides for you from the sky and the earth? (There is) no god but He. Then, how (are) you deluded?” (Surah Fatir 35:3)
Iman in Arabic means faith or to strongly believe in something. To a person, faith is the confidence of themselves to rely on something not only to confess the truth but implement it in their daily life sincerely. According to our Prophet Mohammed in the hadith that told Iman is a knowledge in the heart, a voiced tongue, and limbs activity. So that when the person has a faith (of Islam), then he not only acknowledges his heart but also by saying and daily activities.
Here is the information about the six pillars of Iman in Islam, as follows:
1. Believe in Allah, the only God
The first pillar of Iman as the foundation is believing in Allah as the only God. Allah in Arabic means God for Abrahamic Religion, and commonly Allah is referring to God in Islam. The name is derived from Al-Ilahi which is the same meaning as God. In Islam, believing in Allah is called Tawhid.
وَكَذَّبَ بِهِ قَوْمُكَ وَهُوَ الْحَقُّ قُل لَّسْتُ عَلَيْكُم بِوَكِيلٍ
“But denied it – your people while it (is) the truth. Say, “I am not over you a manager.” (Surah Al-An`am 6:66)
The one and only God are Allah. Allah is the only one eternally. He does not have a descendant or even being born. Those who consider God into a thing beside Him then it considers as shirk and accused to be the unforgiven sin. Meanwhile, in the Quran, there are 99 names dedicated to Allah as define the character namely Asma-Ul-Husna. It has the meaning of a beautiful name, as quoted in the Quran. Allah says:
وَلِلَّهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا وَذَرُوا الَّذِينَ يُلْحِدُونَ فِي أَسْمَائِهِ سَيُجْزَوْنَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ
“And for Allah (are) the names – the most beautiful, so invoke Him by them. And leave those who deviate concerning His names. They will be recompensed for what they used to do.” (Surah Al-A’raf 7:180)
It means that when we start to do some activities including prayer, as well as when we begin the recitation of a surah, we remember Allah which is the Beneficent and the Merciful. It is clearly said that the God of Islam is very Merciful, very Compassionate loving with all of the creatures. As mentioned in Asma-al-Husna that Allah is the Great Forgiver (Al-Ghaffar), the Guardian (Al-Hafiz), the Protector (Al-Muhaymin), so that Islam teaches for loving, kind, gentle, humble and forgiving to all of the human beings, for pleasing their God with all of the characters. Allah says:
لَّا تَجْعَلْ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَٰهًا آخَرَ فَتَقْعُدَ مَذْمُومًا مَّخْذُولًا
“(Do) not make with Allah god another, lest you will sit disgraced, forsaken.” (Surah Al-Isra` 17:22)
Muslims believe that all of mankind was created to dedicate worship for Allah alone. Muslims believe everything else that is worshipped other than Him is falsely worshipped.
2. Believe in Angels
Angels are from the world of the unseen. They were created to obey the commands of Allah and they never transgress His laws or commands. Here is the description of the Angels with verses from the Qur’an: Allah creates angels from pure light before the creation of Adam. They do not eat as well sleep, they are free from weakness, and don’t get the illness. They are created for obeying Allah’s command and worshipping Him.
The following is the names of the angels including their task:
- Jibreel (Gabriel) – the Supreme Angel in charge of communication between Allah’s to His prophets, as well to send the revelation to the messenger.
- Israfeel (Raphael) – in charge of blowing the trumpet starting the Day of Judgment
- Mikail (Michael) – in charge of giving sustenance to the human being.
- Munkar and Nakeer – are in charge of questioning the human soul after death in the grave about their deeds during life.
- Malak Am-Maut / Izrael (Angel of Death) – in charge of taking the souls from the body in the time of death.
- Malik – in charge of the guardian of hell
- Ridwan – in charge of guardian of heaven
- Ateed– the angel who write all the bad deeds of a human during the world’s life.
- Raqeeb – the angel who write all the good deeds of a human during the world’s life.
3. Believe in the Holy Quran
Allah guided people in a particular area who had almost lost their piety and morals. He revealed several divine revelations via His messengers which were blessed by knowledge, wisdom, and faith to One God. The books guided people to understand that Allah is the One and there is no God but Allah, the command to worship only Allah without exception. It also explains about life after death and obeying the Messenger, and if they do not do that, God will give any punishment no matter what.
The holy books given by Allah are mentioned:
- Suhuf (Scrolls) which is given to Prophet Ibrahim Alaihissalam (Abraham).
- Zaboor (Psalms) s given to Prophet Dawood Alayhissalam (David).
- Tawrah (Torah) is given to Prophet Musa Alayhissalam (Moses).
- Injeel (Gospel) is given to Prophet Isa Alayhissalam (Jesus).
- Holy Quran is given to Prophet Mohammed Sallallahu Alahi Wa Salam.
Moslem believe all of the revelations from God given to Prophets. They believe for all Holy Books is existed, but nowadays it is hard finding the original one since the Books has a lot of change. However, Moslem must follow the last revelation from God which is given to Mohammed, the Quran. Quran was given by revelation to Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) by God not only to a certain tribe or nation but also to all of humankind in the world. Allah says:
نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَأَنزَلَ التَّوْرَاةَ وَالْإِنجِيلَ
“He revealed to you the Book in [the] truth confirming that which (was/among) before it, and He revealed the Taurat and the Injeel.” (Surah Ali Imran 3:3)
Quran is revealed by Mohammed firstly in Hira Cave brought by Angel Gabriel (Jibril) when he was 40 years old. At times he was secluded from the outside world which at that time many people were worshipping the idol. It was the last Ramadhan then it is known by Layla-ul-Qadr (the night of power). Allah says:
أَوَلَمْ يَرَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَنَّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ كَانَتَا رَتْقًا فَفَتَقْنَاهُمَا وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَاءِ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ حَيٍّ أَفَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ
“Do not see those who disbelieved that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, then We parted them and We made from [the] water every living thing? Then will not they believe?” (Surah Al-Anbiya` 21:30)
During his meditation, The Angel Gabriel appeared and asked him to read. Since Mohammed was illiterate, he was rejected. The angel pushes him and squeeze him until surrendered, then finally obey what the angel asked. It is the first time Prophet Mohammed had a revelation as a quote in the Quran; Allah says:
اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ
“Read in (the) name (of) your Lord the One Who created.” (Surah Al-`Alaq 96:1)
Quran is the last message of God revealed to the last Prophet as the Messenger of Allah. All Moslems believe that it is the truest word of Allah brought by Gabriel to the Messenger. The Prophet Mohammed was illiterate which he could not write in but send to his companions and recorded by writing it down. The companions then recited back to the Prophet to ensure that the content of revelation given by God was correctly scripted.
وَرَبُّكَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَلَقَدْ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَ النَّبِيِّينَ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا
“And your Lord (is) most knowing of whoever (is) in the heavens and the earth. And verily We have preferred some (of) the Prophets to others. And We gave Dawood Zaboor.” (Surah Al-Isra` 17:55)
Quran consists of 114 chapters (surah), the length has more than 200 verses to come chapter which only 3 chapters, and divided into 30 parts (Jooz). The prophet had revealed the Quran for about 23 years. The Quran was revealed in the Arabic language, transcripted in Arabic and spread all over the world and recited by the Moslems also in Arabic and has been translated in the various language in every country. Allah says:
يُسَبِّحُونَ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ لَا يَفْتُرُونَ
“They glorify (Him) [the] night and [the] day, not they slacken.” (Surah An-Anbiya 21:20)
In Islam, it is a part of faith to believe all the books that were revealed to the messengers. There have been many scriptures revealed throughout the history of mankind. Allah tells us about a few of the names of the scriptures in the Qur’an. Muslims should recite the Quran in Arabic for it refer to the original language, for gaining a greater sense of the true meaning, since the translation has various interpretation in a different language.
4. Believe in Prophets of Allah
All Moslem believe in the Prophet and Messenger of Allah. They are the gifted human that received a revelation from God, which is guiding mankind into morality and goodness and the main point is believing that God is the only the Creator of this universe. Humans must worship Him and follow His order and leave the restrictions. Allah says:
أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ هَدَى اللَّهُ فَبِهُدَاهُمُ اقْتَدِهْ قُل لَّا أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا ذِكْرَىٰ لِلْعَالَمِينَ
“Those (are) ones whom Allah has guided, so of their guidance, you follow. Say, “Not I ask you for it any reward. It (is) not but a reminder for the worlds.” (Surah Al-An`am 6:90)
The former messengers of Mohammed were ordered to send God’s revelation to each nation, for worshipping only one God (Allah). However, Mohammed as the last Messenger was appointed for all of mankind because the Quran is designed to fit for all human beings to believe in Allah.
There are many prophets sent by Allah but quoted in the Quran is only 25 prophets (as well mentioned in the Bible):
- Adam ( Adam ).
- Idris ( Enoch ).
- Nuh ( Noah ).
- Hud ( Eber ).
- Saleh (Shaloh).
- Ibrahim ( Abraham ).
- Lut ( Lot ).
- Isma’il ( Ishmael ).
- Ishaq ( Isaac ).
- Yaqub ( Jacob ).
- Yusuf ( Joseph ).
- Ayoub ( Job ).
- Shu‘aib ( Jethro ).
- Musa ( Moses ).
- Harun ( Aaron ).
- Dhul-Kifl ( Ezekiel ).
- Daud ( David ).
- Sulayman ( Solomon ).
- Ilyas ( Elijah ).
- Al-Yasa ( Elisha ).
- Yunus ( Jonah ).
- Zakariya ( Zechariah ).
- Yahya ( John ).
- Isa ( Jesus ).
- Muhammad SAW.
5. Believe in the Judgement Day
Muslims must believe in the judgment day when Allah terminate creating all creature and human being. After all, destroy and finally dead, He will raise all of mankind and lead them back to Him. All of the good and bad deeds will be valued by Allah. Muslims believe the doomsday and the sign of it as predicted in the Quran and Hadith. Allah says:
عَلِمَتْ نَفْسٌ مَّا قَدَّمَتْ وَأَخَّرَتْ
“Will know a soul what it has sent forth and left behind.” (Surah Al-Infitar 82:5)
The signs of doomsday are told that the appearing of Dajjal, the Appearing of Imam Mahdi, Isa (Jesus) went down to the world (as he directly went to the heaven and never die), and the appearance of Ya’juj and Ma’juj. Allah will count our deeds during the world life and scale them. Allah says:
وَنَضَعُ الْمَوَازِينَ الْقِسْطَ لِيَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ فَلَا تُظْلَمُ نَفْسٌ شَيْئًا وَإِن كَانَ مِثْقَالَ حَبَّةٍ مِّنْ خَرْدَلٍ أَتَيْنَا بِهَا وَكَفَىٰ بِنَا حَاسِبِينَ
“And We set the scales (of) the justice for (the) Day (of) the Resurrection, so not will be wronged any soul (in) anything. And if (there) be weight (of) a seed of mustard We will bring [with] it. And sufficient (are) We (as) Reckoners. “ (Surah An-Anbiya 21:47)
The weight of the deed will be followed by a revelation of the person’s deed of the note during in the life. The person who has a good deed in the right hand, he will be promised of heaven, while on the contrary, the bad deed one will be thrown into hell. Heaven and hell are described in Quran recitation, as quoted. Allah says:
جَنَّاتُ عَدْنٍ يَدْخُلُونَهَا وَمَن صَلَحَ مِنْ آبَائِهِمْ وَأَزْوَاجِهِمْ وَذُرِّيَّاتِهِمْ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ يَدْخُلُونَ عَلَيْهِم مِّن كُلِّ بَابٍ
“Gardens of Eden, they will enter them and whoever (were) righteous among their fathers and their spouses, and their offsprings. And the Angels will enter upon them from every gate.” (Surah Ar- Raad 13:23)
Heaven describes the beautiful garden which we cannot only imagine because it is beyond that. So whoever obey and worship God a lot, then the Angels will open them in every gate. On the contrary, those who don’t believe and reject to believe Allah, and for the sinner, for the bad deed is more than good ones will punish to enjoy the fire of hell. God warned it through the Quran. Allah says:
فَأَنذَرْتُكُمْ نَارًا تَلَظَّىٰ
“So I warn you (of) a Fire blazing.” ( Al-Lail 92:14)
For when will the day of the doomsday be the only ones He knows. People still have a lot of chance before the death to believe Him and obey His command, with a lot of worship and remembrance of Allah. Allah says:
6. Belief in God’s predestination (Qada and Qadar)
Allah has recorded all that happened in the very beginning of life until the final day of the world and keep into the Al Lawh Al-Mahfuz. As mentioned in the Quran. Allah says:
أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ فِي كِتَابٍ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ
“Do you not know that Allah knows what is in the heaven and earth? Indeed, that is in a Record. Indeed, for Allah, is easy.” (Surah Al-Hajj 22:70)
We must believe in the predestination of Allah about the event (Qadaa) and the fate (Qadar) according to His will. If God wishes to occur then it will be, but He doesn’t then it does not occur at all. Allah knows what people do not, nothing occurs except His will. Allah says:
مَّا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ حَسَنَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّهِ وَمَا أَصَابَكَ مِن سَيِّئَةٍ فَمِن نَّفْسِكَ وَأَرْسَلْنَاكَ لِلنَّاسِ رَسُولًا وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا
“What(ever) befalls you of (the) good (is) from Allah, and whatever befalls you of (the) evil (is) from yourself. And for the people (as) a Messenger and Allah is sufficient (as) a Witness.” (Surah An-Nisa` 4:79)
However, Allah gives humans free will and destiny does not cause influence human choices. Allah does not judge for the action and event of human-made beyond the control. Human has free to decide what the best for life but Allah define it. Thus the six pillars of Iman in Islam. Hopefully,y the article will give the benefit and knowledge of Islam.